.

Welcome to your account

Researcher Details
Research Projects

Theme

1st Track : Evolution of Mosque Architecture through the Ages

Role/Contribution

Sole author

Research paper Title

THE ASCENSION (MI‘RĀJ), THE PROPHETS, AND THE CHINESE CALLIGRAPHY IN MELAKAN MOSQUES

Personal Biography

Dr. Hazwan Ariff Hakimi is a distinguished architecture scholar with a robust academic background and professional experience. He holds a PhD in Architecture from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, where he earned high honours for his thesis, a Master’s in Architectural History with distinction from The Bartlett at University College London, and both a Diploma and Bachelor’s in Architecture from the University of Nottingham. Currently serving as a Skim Latihan Akademik Bumiputera (SLAB) Fellow at Universiti Malaya, Hazwan’s research explores architectural histories and historiographies, focusing on the Islāmisation of architecture in the Malay-Indonesian Archipelago. His interdisciplinary approach integrates traditional and modern architecture, literature, and philosophy, employing both traditional and postcolonial theories. He has presented his work at prominent conferences like the International Conference on Regional Architecture and Built Environment (seniBINA) 2022 and the 9th International Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities (PASAK9) 2024, highlighting his active engagement in academic discourse and his commitment to advancing the field of architectural studies. Hazwan’s scholarly contributions are listed below: Refereed Journal Articles 2023 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim, & Nor Zalina Harun. (2023). Examining the symbolism of the Ascension (Mi‘rāj): Relationships between traditional Malay prose narratives (ḥikāyāt) and traditional Malay mosques in Melaka. Jurnal Kejuruteraan, 6(1), 259–69. https://doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-si6(1)-22. (Indexed in Web of Science (ESCI) and MyCite) Hazwan Ariff Hakimi, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim, & Nor Zalina Harun. (2023). Theories of the architectural symbolism of the traditional mosque: A preliminary classification. Jurnal Kejuruteraan, 6(1), 29–41. https://doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-si6(1)-03. (Indexed in Web of Science (ESCI) and MyCite) Book Chapters 2018 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2018). A format for social life. In Ang Chee & Alia Aida Masiri (Eds.), Logbook: KLAF2018 (pp. 126–29). Kuala Lumpur Architecture Festival (KLAF) for Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia (PAM). 2017 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2017). Re(-)presentations. In Ang Chee, Liyana Hasnan, & Alia Aida Masiri (Eds.), Logbook: KLAF2017 (pp. 70–72). Kuala Lumpur Architecture Festival (KLAF) for Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia (PAM). Conference Proceedings 2022 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim, & Nor Zalina Harun. (2022). Examining the symbolism of the Ascension (Mi‘raj): Relationships between traditional Malay prose narratives (hikayat) and traditional Malay mosques in Melaka. In Sarah Mohd Hilmee & Suhana Johar (Eds.), Book of Abstracts of the International Conference on Regional Architecture and Built Environment (seniBINA) 2022 (p. 4). Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Other Publications 2021 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2021, Mei). Memandang bayang-bayang Shakespeare di Stratford. Tunas Cipta, 18–21. 2020 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2020, Jun). Menelusuri perjalanan pengislaman Semenanjung Tanah Melayu. Dewan Budaya, 54–57. Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2020, Januari). Menjungkirbalikkan mentaliti kolonial dalam sejarah seni bina Masjid Negara. Dewan Budaya, 28–31. 2016 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2016). Orienting architecture: Masjid Negara, Kuala Lumpur revisited. Architecture Malaysia, 28(6), 74–77. 2014 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2014). The passionate pilgrim of Titchfield. Architecture Malaysia, 26(2), 80–81.

Paper Abstract

ABSTRACT The symbolic language of mosque architecture has long fascinated Traditionalist scholars, with some interpreting the spatial experience of the Islāmic ritual prayer (ṣalāh) as a microcosm of Prophet Muḥammad’s Ascension (Mi‘rāj). However, existing analyses of the Mi‘rāj symbolism in mosque design, including those in Melaka, often lack methodological rigour and theoretical depth. Given these circumstances, this paper examines the symbolism of the Mi‘rāj in mosque architecture, particularly focusing on a motif in the traditional Malay mosques in Melaka through a traditional Malay prose narrative (ḥikāyat) which manifests the symbolism of the same. It employs a hermeneutic reading of the MSS 2968, the “Small Message to Describe the Night Journey and the Ascension” (Risālat Laṭīfat fī Bayān al-Isrā’ wa-al-Mi‘rāj) (1767) authored by ‘Abd al-Ṣamad al-Falimbānī, alongside case studies of significant and contemporaneous Malay mosques in Melaka, particularly the Chinese calligraphy motif in the hip ridge of Masjid Tengkera (1728) and the marginal ridges of Masjid Kampung Kling (1748). Through a synthesis of textual, document, and comparative analyses, it was found that there is a correlation between the text and the buildings. The characters “fú” (福), “shòu” (壽), and “shuāngxĭ” (囍) inscribed on the mosques are deciphered as symbolic representations of the excellent fortune attained by and from Prophet Mūsā, Prophet Muḥammad’s longevity, and the latter’s double happiness during the Mi‘rāj, respectively. In conclusion, this paper argues that these Melakan mosques, far from being mere physical structures, function as intricate architectural embodiments of the Mi‘rāj narrative. By illuminating the interconnectedness of Malay-Islāmic architecture and literature, this paper contributes to Traditionalist thought and provides a robust conceptual framework for future investigations into the rich tapestry of meaning woven into Islāmic sacred spaces. Keywords: Symbolism, Ascension, prophets, calligraphy, mosque architecture

Theme

1st Track : Evolution of Mosque Architecture through the Ages

Role/Contribution

First author

Research paper Title

EXAMINING THE SYMBOLISM OF THE ASCENSION (MI‘RĀJ): RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TRADITIONAL MALAY PROSE NARRATIVES (ḤIKĀYĀT) AND TRADITIONAL MALAY MOSQUES IN MELAKA

Personal Biography

Dr. Hazwan Ariff Hakimi is a distinguished architecture scholar with a robust academic background and professional experience. He holds a PhD in Architecture from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, where he earned high honours for his thesis, a Master’s in Architectural History with distinction from The Bartlett at University College London, and both a Diploma and Bachelor’s in Architecture from the University of Nottingham. Currently serving as a Skim Latihan Akademik Bumiputera (SLAB) Fellow at Universiti Malaya, Hazwan’s research explores architectural histories and historiographies, focusing on the Islāmisation of architecture in the Malay-Indonesian Archipelago. His interdisciplinary approach integrates traditional and modern architecture, literature, and philosophy, employing both traditional and postcolonial theories. He has presented his work at prominent conferences like the International Conference on Regional Architecture and Built Environment (seniBINA) 2022 and the 9th International Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities (PASAK9) 2024, highlighting his active engagement in academic discourse and his commitment to advancing the field of architectural studies. Hazwan’s scholarly contributions are listed below: Refereed Journal Articles 2023 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim, & Nor Zalina Harun. (2023). Examining the symbolism of the Ascension (Mi‘rāj): Relationships between traditional Malay prose narratives (ḥikāyāt) and traditional Malay mosques in Melaka. Jurnal Kejuruteraan, 6(1), 259–69. https://doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-si6(1)-22. (Indexed in Web of Science (ESCI) and MyCite) Hazwan Ariff Hakimi, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim, & Nor Zalina Harun. (2023). Theories of the architectural symbolism of the traditional mosque: A preliminary classification. Jurnal Kejuruteraan, 6(1), 29–41. https://doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-si6(1)-03. (Indexed in Web of Science (ESCI) and MyCite) Book Chapters 2018 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2018). A format for social life. In Ang Chee & Alia Aida Masiri (Eds.), Logbook: KLAF2018 (pp. 126–29). Kuala Lumpur Architecture Festival (KLAF) for Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia (PAM). 2017 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2017). Re(-)presentations. In Ang Chee, Liyana Hasnan, & Alia Aida Masiri (Eds.), Logbook: KLAF2017 (pp. 70–72). Kuala Lumpur Architecture Festival (KLAF) for Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia (PAM). Conference Proceedings 2022 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim, & Nor Zalina Harun. (2022). Examining the symbolism of the Ascension (Mi‘raj): Relationships between traditional Malay prose narratives (hikayat) and traditional Malay mosques in Melaka. In Sarah Mohd Hilmee & Suhana Johar (Eds.), Book of Abstracts of the International Conference on Regional Architecture and Built Environment (seniBINA) 2022 (p. 4). Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Other Publications 2021 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2021, Mei). Memandang bayang-bayang Shakespeare di Stratford. Tunas Cipta, 18–21. 2020 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2020, Jun). Menelusuri perjalanan pengislaman Semenanjung Tanah Melayu. Dewan Budaya, 54–57. Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2020, Januari). Menjungkirbalikkan mentaliti kolonial dalam sejarah seni bina Masjid Negara. Dewan Budaya, 28–31. 2016 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2016). Orienting architecture: Masjid Negara, Kuala Lumpur revisited. Architecture Malaysia, 28(6), 74–77. 2014 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2014). The passionate pilgrim of Titchfield. Architecture Malaysia, 26(2), 80–81.

Paper Abstract

ABSTRACT The saying that the Islāmic ritual prayer (ṣalāh) epitomises the ascension (mi‘rāj) of the believer has prompted some scholars to interpret the Prophet Muḥammad’s Ascension (Mi‘rāj) in the traditional mosque’s symbolism in the Islāmic world, including those in Melaka. Despite being original in the Traditionalist sense of the word, their allusions to the symbolism remain methodologically deficient and conceptually limited. Given these circumstances, this article examines the symbolism of the Mi‘rāj in the traditional Malay mosques in Melaka through the traditional Malay prose narratives (ḥikāyāt) which manifest the symbolism of the same. It employs a hermeneutic reading of MSS 2968 Risālat Laṭīfat fī Bayān al-Isrā’ wa-al-Mi‘rāj (1767), the earliest known manuscript narrating the story of Prophet Muḥammad’s Mi‘rāj in the Malay world as well as case studies of three significant and contemporaneous Malay mosques in Melaka, namely Masjid Tengkera (1728), Masjid Kampung Hulu (1728), and Masjid Kampung Kling (1748). By capitalising on the combination of textual, document, and comparative analyses, it was found that there is a correlation between the text and the buildings, in which the symbolism of the Mi‘rāj is manifested in several external and internal architectural elements of all three mosques. These findings present the unity of the traditional Malay-Islāmic heritage generally and the productive relationship between literature and architecture particularly through a provisional methodological and conceptual framework which endeavours to establish the basis for future research on the subject. Keywords: Architectural symbolism; Ascension; Prose narrative; Mosque architecture; Melaka

Theme

1st Track : Evolution of Mosque Architecture through the Ages

Role/Contribution

First author

Research paper Title

THEORIES OF THE ARCHITECTURAL SYMBOLISM OF THE TRADITIONAL MOSQUE: A PRELIMINARY CLASSIFICATION

Personal Biography

Dr. Hazwan Ariff Hakimi is a distinguished architecture scholar with a robust academic background and professional experience. He holds a PhD in Architecture from Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, where he earned high honours for his thesis, a Master’s in Architectural History with distinction from The Bartlett at University College London, and both a Diploma and Bachelor’s in Architecture from the University of Nottingham. Currently serving as a Skim Latihan Akademik Bumiputera (SLAB) Fellow at Universiti Malaya, Hazwan’s research explores architectural histories and historiographies, focusing on the Islāmisation of architecture in the Malay-Indonesian Archipelago. His interdisciplinary approach integrates traditional and modern architecture, literature, and philosophy, employing both traditional and postcolonial theories. He has presented his work at prominent conferences like the International Conference on Regional Architecture and Built Environment (seniBINA) 2022 and the 9th International Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities (PASAK9) 2024, highlighting his active engagement in academic discourse and his commitment to advancing the field of architectural studies. Hazwan’s scholarly contributions are listed below: Refereed Journal Articles 2023 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim, & Nor Zalina Harun. (2023). Examining the symbolism of the Ascension (Mi‘rāj): Relationships between traditional Malay prose narratives (ḥikāyāt) and traditional Malay mosques in Melaka. Jurnal Kejuruteraan, 6(1), 259–69. https://doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-si6(1)-22. (Indexed in Web of Science (ESCI) and MyCite) Hazwan Ariff Hakimi, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim, & Nor Zalina Harun. (2023). Theories of the architectural symbolism of the traditional mosque: A preliminary classification. Jurnal Kejuruteraan, 6(1), 29–41. https://doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2023-si6(1)-03. (Indexed in Web of Science (ESCI) and MyCite) Book Chapters 2018 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2018). A format for social life. In Ang Chee & Alia Aida Masiri (Eds.), Logbook: KLAF2018 (pp. 126–29). Kuala Lumpur Architecture Festival (KLAF) for Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia (PAM). 2017 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2017). Re(-)presentations. In Ang Chee, Liyana Hasnan, & Alia Aida Masiri (Eds.), Logbook: KLAF2017 (pp. 70–72). Kuala Lumpur Architecture Festival (KLAF) for Pertubuhan Akitek Malaysia (PAM). Conference Proceedings 2022 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim, & Nor Zalina Harun. (2022). Examining the symbolism of the Ascension (Mi‘raj): Relationships between traditional Malay prose narratives (hikayat) and traditional Malay mosques in Melaka. In Sarah Mohd Hilmee & Suhana Johar (Eds.), Book of Abstracts of the International Conference on Regional Architecture and Built Environment (seniBINA) 2022 (p. 4). Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Other Publications 2021 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2021, Mei). Memandang bayang-bayang Shakespeare di Stratford. Tunas Cipta, 18–21. 2020 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2020, Jun). Menelusuri perjalanan pengislaman Semenanjung Tanah Melayu. Dewan Budaya, 54–57. Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2020, Januari). Menjungkirbalikkan mentaliti kolonial dalam sejarah seni bina Masjid Negara. Dewan Budaya, 28–31. 2016 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2016). Orienting architecture: Masjid Negara, Kuala Lumpur revisited. Architecture Malaysia, 28(6), 74–77. 2014 Hazwan Ariff Hakimi. (2014). The passionate pilgrim of Titchfield. Architecture Malaysia, 26(2), 80–81.

Paper Abstract

ABSTRACT The productive scholarship on the architectural symbolism of the traditional mosque expounded by the Traditionalist School at the end of the second millennium, which continued well into the third millennium by scholars exhibiting a strong Traditionalist influence or otherwise, is a testament to the subject’s importance to the development of Islāmic architecture. Despite its prolificity and agency, most studies on the subject remain theoretically arbitrary, if not deficient, rudimentary at best, and disjointed. To fill this theoretical gap, this article, for the first time, identifies, outlines, and synthesises the many disparate theories of the architectural symbolism of the traditional mosque to establish a preliminary classification. It employs a hermeneutic reading of 32 significant theoretical and empirical studies on the architectural symbolism of the traditional mosque sourced from books, journals, conference proceedings, and periodicals available to the authors. By capitalising on the textual and comparative analyses, it is found that as many as 28 distinct theories of the architectural symbolism of the traditional mosque with their attendant symbolic dimensions and parameters were posited in all 32 studies, all of which can be consolidated into three broad theoretical frameworks. These findings present an original systematisation of theories of the architectural symbolism of the traditional mosque, which is instrumental in two ways: it encourages scholars to develop existing theories or establish new ones, and it assists Muslims in recognising and acknowledging the spiritual agency of their built forms while offering foreign readers another expansive and inspiring lens to view them. Keywords: Architectural theory; Architectural symbolism; Mosque architecture
Photo Submission
Works Documentation
Conference Participation

You’re leaving us?

Thank you for the interest in the
international conference on mosque
architecture (ICMA)
Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Sed consequat velit at ante bibendum, in dictum elit dignissim. Integer ac ligula eu quam commodo elementum. Aliquam erat volutpat. Phasellus ut justo vel sapien efficitur cursus. Proin nec leo vel dolor gravida consectetur.
Ut id tortor nec turpis lacinia feugiat. Aliquam erat volutpat. Pellentesque habitant morbi tristique senectus et netus et malesuada fames ac turpis egestas. Vestibulum nec cursus nisl. Integer ut quam ac nulla venenatis iaculis vel vel turpis. Fusce hendrerit arcu at dui euismod, id suscipit justo pulvinar. Nulla facilisi.
لوريم إيبسوم دولور سيت أميت، كونسيكتيتور أديبيسينغ إليت. سد كونسيكوات فيليت أت أنتي بيبندوم، إن ديكتوم إليت ديغنيسيم. إنتيجر أك ليغولا إو كوام كومودو إليمنتوم. أليكوام إيرات فولوتبات. فيسللوس أوت جوستو فيل سابين إيفيسيتور كورسوس. بروين نك ليو فيل دولور جرافيدا كونسيكتيتور. أوت إيد تورتور نيك توربيس لاسينيا فيوغيات. أليكوام إيرات فولوتبات. بيلينتيسكو
لوريم إيبسوم دولور سيت أميت، كونسيكتيتور أديبيسينغ إليت. سد كونسيكوات فيليت أت أنتي بيبندوم، إن ديكتوم إليت ديغنيسيم. إنتيجر أك ليغولا إو كوام كومودو إليمنتوم. أليكوام إيرات فولوتبات. فيسللوس أوت جوستو فيل سابين إيفيسيتور كورسوس. بروين نك ليو فيل دولور جرافيدا كونسيكتيتور. أوت إيد تورتور نيك توربيس لاسينيا فيوغيات. أليكوام إيرات فولوتبات. بيلينتيسكو